Europe and Nations since 1815
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1810
1820
1830
1840
1850
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Congress of Vienna
1830
Belgian Independence
Europe after
the Congress of Vienna
Greek rebellion
against the Ottoman Empire
1822
1830
Greek Independence
1830
Serbian autonomy
48
49
European Revolutions
Creation of a customs union in Germany (Zollverein)
1848
Fall of the French
monarchy
1859
1870
Unification of Italy
1866
1871
Unification
of Germany
1867
The Austrian Empire
becomes Austria-Hungary
1875
1913
Independence of the Balkan Nations
Creation of the "Triple Alliance"
1882
1889
1897
1st agreement
2nd agreement
Renewal
1879
Dual
Alliance
1893
1904
1907
Creation of the "Triple Entente"
Franco-Russian
Alliance
Entente
cordiale
Anglo-Russian
Entente
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
1905
Norway’s independence
World War I
Great Depression
World War II
1919
Treaty
of Versailles
Europe after
the First World War
1917
1921
Russian Revolution
Creation of the Irish Free State
A wave of authoritarian regimes
Spanish Civil War
1936
1939
1947
Europe divided in two during the Cold War
1991
Dissolution
of the Soviet Union
1938
1938
The Anschluss
Munich Agreement
Europe after
the Second World War
1989
Fall of the Berlin Wall
1957
1973
1981
1986
1992
1995
2004
2007
2012
European Economic Community (EEC)
European Union (EU)
Maastricht
Treaty
Treaties
of Rome
The 1st
enlargement
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
1974
Partition of Cyprus
The 2nd
enlargement
The 3rd
enlargement
The 4th
enlargement
The 5th
enlargement
The 6th
enlargement
The European Union is awarded
the Nobel Peace Prize
1991
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Division of
Czechoslovakia
1992
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
EEC
The six founding states
EEC
9 member states
EEC
12 member states
EU
15 member states
EU
27 member states
1815
1878
Congress of Berlin
Treaty of Bucharest
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Congress of Vienna

    This international congress met in Vienna between November 1814 and June 1815 to redesign the boundaries between European states following the Napoleonic Wars.

    Numerous politicians played significant roles, including Metternich for Austria, Talleyrand for France, Wellington for the United Kingdom.

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Creation of a German customs union (Zollverein)

    This customs union (Zollverein) was initiated by Prussia. Its expansion to include the numerous German states stimulated economic development and lead to German political unification.

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Dual Alliance

    A defensive alliance between the Austro-Hungarian and the German Empires signed on 7 October 1879.

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Triple Alliance (Triplice)

    This military alliance, May 20, 1882, between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, was designed to isolate France diplomatically and to prevent its colonial expansion.

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Triple Entente

    This alliance between France, the United Kingdom and Russia was formed for mutual protection in case of conflict with members of the Triple Alliance.

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Congress of Berlin

    This international meeting confirmed independence of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania.

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Treaty of Bucharest

    The Balkan Wars ended with the Treaty of Bucharest. Most of the Ottoman Empire’s European territories were allocated to Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Greece and Bulgaria.

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Irish Independence

    On December 6, 1921, after the War for Independence, an Irish delegation signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the British government. The southern part of the island, Eire, became a free state, attached to the British crown as a dominion. In the north, six counties formed Ulster, which remained part of Britain.

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The Great Depression

    The “1929 crisis” began in the United States with the stock market crash on Thursday, October 24th – “black Thursday.” This crisis plunged the American economy, then the world economy into a severe and complex economic depression: bank defaults and market devaluation, unemployment and despair.

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Spanish Civil War

    Between July 1936 and April 1939, this deadly conflict opposed Spanish republicans and nationalist rebels lead by General Francisco Franco (1892-1975).

    It ended with the victory of the nationalists, who had received aid from fascist Germany and Italy.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Spain: Republicanism and Civil War, 1931-1939" in our series Europe and nations 1918-1942.

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The Anschluss

    Following a coup d’etat by the Austrian Nazi party, the German army marched into Austria on March 12, 1938. One month later, April 10th, a referendum ratified the annexation of Austria to Germany.

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The Munich Agreement

    Signed by Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and France, this agreement allowed Hitler to annex territories in Czechoslovakia populated primarily by Sudetan Germans.

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Treaties of Rome

    Two treaties were signed on March 25, 1957 by the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

    The first gave birth to the European Economic Community (EEC) and established the progressive development of a customs union.

    The second approved the creation of a European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), with the goal of ensuring European energy independence.

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1st enlargement

    In 1973, three countries joined the EEC: Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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2nd enlargement

    In 1981, Greece joined the EEC.

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3rd enlargement

    In 1986, Spain and Portugal joined the EEC.

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The Maastricht Treaty

    This “treaty for economic, monetary and political union” represented a fundamental step toward European integration. Among other provisions, it paved the way for a single currency and created European citizenship for citizens in the Union’s member states.

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4th enlargement

    In 1995, three countries joined the EU: Austria, Finland and Sweden.

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5th enlargement

    In 2004, ten countries joined the EU: Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia.

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6th enlargement

    In 2007, two countries joined the EU: Bulgaria and Romania.

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Fall of the Berlin Wall

    During the night of 9 November 1989, the wall that had cut Berlin in two since 1961 was pierced at several places allowing people to pass from one side to the other. The fall of the Berlin Wall led to the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990.

2013
The 7th
enlargement
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7th enlargement

    In 2013, one country joined the EU: Croatia.

Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
EU
28 member states
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Belgium independent
of the Netherlands
Independence of Greece
in 1830
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Belgian Independence

    Riots in Brussels during the summer of 1830 led to the break-up of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which was established by the Congress of Vienna.

    When the European powers met in London, they agreed on the separation of the two countries and issued a declaration of neutrality for Belgium.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Independence of Belgium" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

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Greek Independence

    Greece became independent in February 1830 after a long struggle with the Ottoman Empire.

    The new state covered the regions of the Peloponnese, the northern areas of the Gulf of Corinth, Athens, Euboea and the Cyclades, but several large regions in which there was a majority of Greek residents remained under Ottoman control.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Independence of Greece" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
The German Reich in 1871
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Timeline of European history
Austria-Hungary
The Balkans after the Congress of Berlin
The Balkans in 1908
The Balkans in 1913
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
in Europe in 1955
Independent states after 1991
Countries of the former Yugoslavia
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The Revolutions of 1848

    Early in 1848, inspired by the Romantic Movement, a number of revolutions broke out throughout Europe and threatened the European order established by the Congress of Vienna.

    The uprisings were short-lived and, in 1849, these democratic movements were beaten particularly in Austria, Germany and Italy.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Revolutions of 1848" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

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Unification of Italy

    Helped by France, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia brought an end to Austrian domination in Italy and succeeded in unifying the peninsula under King Victor Emmanuel.

    Garibaldi’s successful “Expedition of the Thousand” was a key event in the unification of the country.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Unification of Italy" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

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Unification of Germany

    In 1815, the Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation but it had no real power.

    Bismarck, Prussia’s Chancellor, succeeded in unifying Germany by launching three wars against Denmark, Austria and France.

    The King of Prussia, Wilhelm I was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Château of Versailles on 18 January 1871.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Unification of Germany" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

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Austria-Hungary

    The Austrian Empire, much weakened by its exclusion from the unified German state, became a bi-national state, Austria-Hungary under one sovereign who was Emperor in Vienna and King in Budapest.

    This political evolution did not resolve the difficult question of the country’s national minorities.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Austria-Hungary 1867" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

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Independence of the Balkan Peoples

    After 1875, a series of crises created upheavals in the Balkans which led to the Ottoman Empire losing almost all its territories on the European continent.

    The allocation of territory among the Balkan peoples was made more difficult by rivalries amongst the European Powers and the presence of multi-national populations throughout the region, and in particular in Macedonia.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Independence of the Balkan Peoples" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

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Norway’s independence

    In 1905, the Norwegian Parliament declared the abolition of the Union with Sweden. This decision was confirmed by a referendum held in Norway.

For additional information please refer to the animated map "Independence of Norway" in our series Europe and nations 1815-1914.

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A wave of authoritarian regimes

    During the 1920s, extreme-right parties took power or wielded strong political influence in several European countries.

    This wave of authoritarianism arose from dissatisfaction with the peace treaties, the socio-economic upheavals provoked by World War I, and the fragility of democratic institutions still in the early stages of development.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Authoritarian Regimes in the 1920s" in our series Europe and nations 1918-1942.

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Yugoslavia: The Union breaks apart

    In 1946, Yugoslavia became a federal state, but later there was tension between the Serbs, who preferred a centralized state, and the other nationalities, in particular the Croats and the Slovenes.

    In June 1991 Croatia and Slovenia decided to proclaim their independence. Yugoslavia began to implode and the country was plunged into war.


For additional information please refer to the animated map "Yugoslavia: From Unity to Disunity" in our series Europe and Nations from 1945 to the present.

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