(…) Under the leadership of the four great victors over France: the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia and Russia, the European countries meet in Vienna to determine the fate of the territories that were shattered by the Napoleonic conquests, and reconstruct a European order.
Two principles dominate the negotiations: the preservation of political equilibrium among the powers, and the restoration of old dynasties, driven out by the revolutionary wave.
The decisions taken in Vienna redraw the political map of Europe.
- Prussia expands to include a part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Swedish Pomerania, over half of Saxony, and above all, the greater part of the Rhineland. With these acquisitions, Prussia definitively obtains the status of a great European power.
- Russia secures its takeover of Finland. It is granted trusteeship over the greater part of Poland and removes Bessarabia from the Ottoman Empire. The Czar thereby continues his march towards Constantinople.
- Austria, for its part, recovers the Tyrol and receives the kingdom of Venetian Lombardy, as well as Dalmatia. These latter territorial expansions give the Hapsburg Empire a southern and Mediterranean engagement (…)
History of Europe during the 19th century: Congress of Vienna – the revolutions of 1848 – nationalism – national minorities – Balkan wars – colonial empires
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