This map is part of a series of 24 animated maps showing the history of Europe and nations, 1815-1914.
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna confirmed the Russian takeover of Finland, the greater part of Poland, and Bessarabia.
In the course of the 19th century, Russia pursues the extension of its empire in the Caucasus, in central Asia towards Tashkent and Samarkand, and in the Far East, where the city of Vladivostok is founded in 1860.
This Russian movement ends up confronting England and its Indian Empire in central Asia, whereas in the Far East it is stopped in 1905 because of its defeat by Japan.
But the primary concern for the czars remains the expansion toward the straits, and access to warm water ports. Throughout the 19th century, this Russian policy comes up against opposition from European powers most particularly that of England, anxious to protect its commercial shipping lanes, and that of Austria, which seeks to extend its influence in the Balkans, and control the mouth of the Danube.