This map is part of a series of 24 animated maps showing the history of Europe and nations, 1815-1914.
To contain France along its northern border, the Congress of Vienna reunited, in a single state, Belgians and Dutch, separated for more than two centuries by their religious convictions. Soon afterwards, the blunders of King William I, as well as the economic rivalries among Dutch merchants, open to free trade, and industrial Walloons, anxious to protect themselves from competition, create in Belgium a strong opposition to Dutch domination.
A riot breaks out in Brussels on August 25, 1830, forcing the retreat of the Dutch garrison. A provisional government is formed and proclaims Belgian independence on the fourth of October. The European powers assembled in London ratify the separation of the two states and proclaim Belgian neutrality.
For its part, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, whose western portion was incorporated into Belgium, will not become totally independent from Holland until 1890.